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Leadership Theories

Course for Arcadia University

Overview/History

Course organization

Leadership History

Leader vs. Manager

Continum Side by side comparison Manager has subordinates Leader has follwers

Examples

Colin Powell Des TuTu Nelson Mandella Woman released in Miranmar (Burma) (Aung San Suu Kyi) Jesus Moses Mohammed Budda Gandi Alexander the Great Julius Caesar Napolean Bonaparte MartinLuther King John F Kennedy Abraham Lincoln Ulys. S. Grant Franklin D. Roosevelt Dwight Eisenhower Native American - Crazy Horse? Admiral Nelson George Patton Douglas MacArthur Montgomery George Swartzkopf Jack Welsh Lee Iacocca John Wooden Vince Lombardi Joe Paterno Coach K (North Carolina) Joan of Arc Marie Antoinette? Scotland? Margaret Thatcher Warren Buffet Many YouTube, iTunes U videos

Great "man"

Born vs. made

Great Woman

Northouse, Peter Chapter 12 Chapter 13 in 5th ed. Discussion question about glass ceiling

Glass ceiling

Trait

Bennis. 6 Traits Changing Minds? Need classic article.. Emotional Intelligence. Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee, in Primal Leadership, describe six styles of leading that have different effects on the emotions of the target followers. These are styles, not types. Any leader can use any style, and a good mix that is customised to the situation is generally the most effective approach. Visionary Coaching Affiliative Democratic Pace Setting Commanding.

Behavioral

Operant conditioning Classic conditioning

Skills. Does this course cover the skills Should they be after each theory? - possibly as application exercise Just covered as part of overview? Does Virtual leadership come in here? Do we cover Team leadership? Skinner to intro Behaviorial Still bais for many training programs - DDI, Achieve Global Also on Changing Minds web.. Studies. Blake-Mouton. More a management theory People Task. Role Theory. Contingency?. Ohio State. A famous series of studies on leadership were done in Ohio State University, starting in the 1950s. They found two critical characteristics either of which could be high or low and were independent of one another. The research was base on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. These are known as the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LDBQ) and the Supervisor Behavior Description Questionnaire (SDBQ). By 1962, the LDBQ was on version XII. Actions Consideration Consideration is the degree to which a leader acts in a friendly and supportive manner towards his or her subordinates. Initiating Structure This is the degree to which a leader defines and structures his or her role and the roles of the subordinates towards achieving the goals of the group.. Michigan. A famous series of studies on leadership were done in Michigan University, starting in the 1950s. They found three critical characteristics of effective leaders. Actions Task-oriented behavior Effective managers studied did not do the same kind work as their subordinates. Their tasks were different, and included planning and scheduling work, coordinating activities and providing necessary resources. They also spent time guiding subordinates in setting task goals that were both challenging and achievable. Relationship-oriented behavior Effective managers not only concentrated on the task, but also on their relationship with their subordinates. They were more considerate, helpful and supportive of subordinates, including helping them with their career and personal problems. They recognized effort with intrinsic as well as extrinsic reward, thanking people for effort. Overall, the effective preferred a general and hands-off form of supervision rather than close control. They set goals and provided guidelines, but then gave their subordinates plenty of leeway as to how the goals would be achieved. Participative leadership Effective leaders use a participative style, managing at the group level as well as individually, for example using team meetings to share ideas and involve the team in group decisions and problem-solving. By their actions, such leaders model good team-oriented behavior. The role of the manager is more facilitative than directive, guiding the conversation and helping to resolve differences. The manager, however, is responsible for results and is not absolved of responsibility. As such, they may make final decisions that take recommendations from the team into account. The effect of participative leadership is to build a cohesive team which works together rather than a set of individuals..

Situational

Yuki (1989) Subordinate effort: the motivation and actual effort expended. Subordinate ability and role clarity: followers knowing what to do and how to do it. Organization of the work: the structure of the work and utilization of resources. Cooperation and cohesiveness: of the group in working together. Resources and support: the availability of tools, materials, people, etc. External coordination: the need to collaborate with other groups. Maier (1963) Tannenbaum and Schmidt - 1958 Hersey-Blanchard (1999) - One Minute Manager now separate - each have same model

Contingency. Path-Goal. House and Mitchell (1974) describe four styles of leadership: Supportive leadership Considering the needs of the follower, showing concern for their welfare and creating a friendly working environment. This includes increasing the follower's self-esteem and making the job more interesting. This approach is best when the work is stressful, boring or hazardous. Directive leadership Telling followers what needs to be done and giving appropriate guidance along the way. This includes giving them schedules of specific work to be done at specific times. Rewards may also be increased as needed and role ambiguity decreased (by telling them what they should be doing). This may be used when the task is unstructured and complex and the follower is inexperienced. This increases the follower's sense of security and control and hence is appropriate to the situation. Participative leadership Consulting with followers and taking their ideas into account when making decisions and taking particular actions. This approach is best when the followers are expert and their advice is both needed and they expect to be able to give it. Achievement-oriented leadership Setting challenging goals, both in work and in self-improvement (and often together). High standards are demonstrated and expected. The leader shows faith in the capabilities of the follower to succeed. This approach is best when the task is complex.. Hersey-Blanchard -Model. Normative Model - Vroom & Yetton. Vroom 1964 As we constantly are predicting likely futures, we create expectations about future events. If things seem reasonably likely and attractive, we know how to get there and we believe we can 'make the difference' then this will motivate us to act to make this future come true. Motivation is thus a combination of: Valence: The value of the perceived outcome (What's in it for me?) Instrumentality: The belief that if I complete certain actions then I will achieve the outcome. (Clear path?) Expectancy: The belief that I am able to complete the actions. (My capability?) Of course you can have an unpleasant outcome, in which case the motivation is now one of avoidance. Expectancy Theory is also called Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory or VIE Theory.. Fiedler (LPC) theory. Cognitive Resource Theory. Intelligence and experience and other cognitive resources are factors in leadership success. Cognitive capabilities, although significant are not enough to predict leadership success. Stress impacts the ability to make decisions. Description Cognitive Resource Theory predicts that: 1. A leader's cognitive ability contributes to the performance of the team only when the leader's approach is directive. When leaders are better at planning and decision-making, in order for their plans and decisions to be implemented, they need to tell people what to do, rather than hope they agree with them. When they are not better than people in the team, then a non-directive approach is more appropriate, for example where they facilitate an open discussion where the ideas of team can be aired and the best approach identified and implemented. 2. Stress affects the relationship between intelligence and decision quality. When there is low stress, then intelligence is fully functional and makes an optimal contribution. However, during high stress, a natural intelligence not only makes no difference, but it may also have a negative effect. One reason for this may be that an intelligent person seeks rational solutions, which may not be available (and may be one of the causes of stress). In such situations, a leader who is inexperienced in 'gut feel' decisions is forced to rely on this unfamiliar approach. Another possibility is that the leader retreats within him/herself, to think hard about the problem, leaving the group to their own devices. 3. Experience is positively related to decision quality under high stress. When there is a high stress situation and intelligence is impaired, experience of the same or similar situations enables the leader to react in appropriate ways without having to think carefully about the situation. Experience of decision-making under stress also will contribute to a better decision than trying to muddle through with brain-power alone. 4. For simple tasks, leader intelligence and experience is irrelevant. When subordinates are given tasks which do not need direction or support, then it does not matter how good the leader is at making decisions, because they are easy to make, even for subordinates, and hence do not need any further support.. Expectancy - Vroom. Vroom & Yetton A motivation theory.

Future

Followership. iTunesU - New Directions in Leadership - The effect of leadership on follwers: Self regulatory focus and outcomes 38 min. Inspiring. New Directions in Leadership Research - iTunesU Leadership as Inspiration - Taking it to the next level: Leadership and Goal raising -. Global - cultural. Northouse, Peter Chapter 13 iTunesU -New Directtions - Leading to find value in Diversity: Leadership, Diversity benefits and group behavior - 29 min. Multi-generational. Need material.

Transformational

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York: Free Press. Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, (Winter): 19-31. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row Assumptions People will follow a person who inspires them. A person with vision and passion can achieve great things. The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.

Bass (1985-90). Awareness of task importance motivates people. A focus on the team or organization produces better work. Description Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers: Increasing their awareness of task importance and value. Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests. Activating their higher-order needs. Charisma is seen as necessary, but not sufficient, for example. Burns (1978). Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row Association with a higher moral position is motivating and will result in people following a leader who promotes this. Working collaboratively is better than working individually. Description Burns defined transformational leadership as a process where leaders and followers engage in a mutual process of 'raising one another to higher levels of morality and motivation.' Transformational leaders raise the bar by appealing to higher ideals and values of followers. In doing so, they may model the values themselves and use charismatic methods to attract people to the values and to the leader. Burns' view is that transformational leadership is more effective than transactional leadership, where the appeal is to more selfish concerns. An appeal to social values thus encourages people to collaborate, rather than working as individuals (and potentially competitively with one another). He also views transformational leadership as an ongoing process rather than the discrete exchanges of the transactional approach.. Leadership Challenge. Kouzes & Posner (2002) James Kouzes and Barry Posner developed a survey (The Leadership Practices Inventory) that asked people which, of a list of common characteristics of leaders, were, in their experiences of being led by others, the seven top things they look for, admire and would willingly follow. And over twenty years, they managed ask this of seventy five thousand people. The results of the study showed that people preferred the following characteristics, in order: Honest Forward-looking Competent Inspiring Intelligent Fair-minded Broad-minded Supportive Straightforward Dependable Cooperative Determined Imaginative Ambitious Courageous Caring Mature Loyal Self-controlled Independent. Principle Centered. Morals Values Stephen Covey Put Ethics here? Values based Leadership - Robert McDonald COO of Proctor & Gamble - iTunesU. 56 min. Servant Leadership. Robert Greenleaf (1977) Speers (2002) The leader has responsibility for the followers. Leaders have a responsibility towards society and those who are disadvantaged. People who want to help others best do this by leading them. Style The servant leader serves others, rather than others serving the leader. Serving others thus comes by helping them to achieve and improve. There are two criteria of servant leadership: The people served grow as individuals, becoming 'healthier, wiser, more autonomous and more likely themselves to become servants' (Greenleaf, 1977). The extent to which the leadership benefits those who are least advantaged in society (or at least does not disadvantage them). iTunesU - New Directions in Leadership - Understanding the Psychology of Stewardship within Leadership. Charismatic. Charm and grace are all that is needed to create followers. Self-belief is a fundamental need of leaders. People follow others that they personally admire. Style The Charismatic Leader gathers followers through dint of personality and charm, rather than any form of external power or authority. Changing Minds web. Authentic. In Northouse, Peter G. - 5th ed. Read on-line at Amazon. Bass, B. M. and Steidlmeier, P. (1998). Ethics, Character and Authentic Transformational Leadership Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components: Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration ...and three moral aspects: The moral character of the leader. The ethical values embedded in the leader's vision, articulation, and program (which followers either embrace or reject). The morality of the processes of social ethical choice and action that leaders and followers engage in and collectively pursue. iTunes U video - Leadership academy - related to other styles..

Transactional

Assumptions People are motivated by reward and punishment. Social systems work best with a clear chain of command. When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager. The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.

Equity Theory. Adams (1963), Adams (1965), Homans (1961), Walster, Walster and Berscheid (1978). L-M Exchange. Dansereau, Graen and Haga (1975), Graen and Cashman (1975) Description Leader-Member Exchange Theory, also called LMX or Vertical Dyad Linkage Theory, describes how leaders in groups maintain their position through a series of tacit exchange agreements with their members. In-group and out-group In particular, leaders often have a special relationship with an inner circle of trusted lieutenants, assistants and advisors, to whom they give high levels of responsibility, decision influence, and access to resources. This in-group pay for their position. They work harder, are more committed to task objectives, and share more administrative duties. They are also expected to be fully committed and loyal to their leader. The out-group, on the other hand, are given low levels of choice or influence. This also puts constraints upon the leader. They have to nurture the relationship with their inner circle whilst balancing giving them power with ensuring they do not have enough to strike out on their own. The LMX process These relationships, if they are going to happen, start very soon after a person joins the group and follow three stages. 1. Role taking The member joins the team and the leader assesses their abilities and talents. Based on this, the leader may offer them opportunities to demonstrate their capabilities. Another key factor in this stage is the discovery by both parties of how the other likes to be respected. 2. Role making In the second phase, the leader and member take part in an unstructured and informal negotiation whereby a role is created for the member and the often-tacit promise of benefit and power in return for dedication and loyalty takes place. Trust-building is very important in this stage, and any felt betrayal, especially by the leader, can result in the member being relegated to the out-group. This negotiation includes relationship factors as well as pure work-related ones, and a member who is similar to the leader in various ways is more likely to succeed. This perhaps explains why mixed gender relationships regularly are less successful than same-gender ones (it also affects the seeking of respect in the first stage). The same effect also applies to cultural and racial differences. 3. Routinization In this phase, a pattern of ongoing social exchange between the leader and the member becomes established..

Participative

Autocratic to Delegative. Likert (1967). Style? Exploitive authoritative Benevolent authoritative Consultative Participative. Lewin. Autocratic Democratic Lasse Faire.