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Natural vegetation


Renewable resource

Enhance the quality of environment

Modify local climate

Control soil erosion

Regulate stream flow

supports a variety of industries

provide livelihood

panorimic or scenic view

Controls wind force

Provides humus to plants

shelter to wild life

Every species has a role to play

Dut ot excessive exploitation of plants and animals the ecosystem has been disturbed

1300 plant species are endangered and 20 are extinct

Some animals are also extinct and few other are endangered

greedy hunters

pollution - chemical waste, acid deposits, reckless cuttings of the forests to bring for cultivation and inhabitation

India is one of the 12 mega bio-diversity countries of the world

Subtopic. 47,000 plant species - 10th place in the world and 4th in Asia. 89000 animal species. 2500 species of fishes - 12% of world's stock. 15,000 flowering plants. Non flowering plants - ferns, algae and fungi.

Virgin vegetation - Purely Indian

Exotic vegetation - came from outside India


Soil - Different types of soil provides basis for different types of vegetation. Land - Nature of land affects the type of vegetation.


Precipitation - Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to other areas of less rainfall.. Photoperiod - Variation in sunlight at different places is due to difference in latitutde, altitude and season and duration of the day.. Temperature - Character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature.

Steps taken by government

14 biospheres have been set up in the country. Financial and technical assistance is provided to many botanical gardens. Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco-developmental projects have been introduced. 89 National Parks, 490 Wildlife sanctuaries and Zoological gardens are set up.

Types of Vegetation

Tropical Evergreen forests. Tropical Deciduous forests. Tropical Thorn forests. Montane forests. Mangrove forests. Heavy rainfall areas of Western Ghats, islanda of Lakhadweep, Andaman and nicobar islands, upper parts of Assam, Tamil Nadu coasts. 200cms of rainfall with short dry season. Region is warm and wet throughout the year. Height of trees - 60 mts. All types of vegetation - trees, shrubs, creepers. No definite time for trees to shed their leaves. Types of trees - Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, cinchona. Animals - elephants, monkey, lemur and deer, one horned rhinocerous. Birds, bats, scorpions, snails. Most widespreasd forests and also known as Monsoon forests.. Birds, lizards, snakes and tortoises. Animals - lion, tiger, pig, deer and elephants. Rainfall - 70cms to 200 cms. Shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer. Semi-srid regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. Less than 70 cms of rainfall. Acacias, palms, europhobias and cacti- they are scattered and have long roots. Leaves are thick and small. Found at the altitudes of 1000 - 2000 mts. Found at altitudes of 1500 - 3000mts. At high altitudes of 3500mts. Animals - Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, tibetan antelope, yak, sno leopard, squirrels, shaggy wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair. Areas of coasts influence by tides - mud and silt gets accumulated at the coasts. Common varities with roots of the plants submerged under water. Deltas of Ganga, Brahmaputra, krishna, mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri. Royal Bengal tiger, turtles, crocodile, gharials, snakes. Moist deciduous. Dry deciduous. Evergreen broad leaf trees such as oaks, chestnuts. Coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar. Alpine vegetation - silver fir, junipers, pines, birches. Rainfall 100-200 cms. Foothills of Himalayas, Jharkhand, W. Orissa and Chhattisgarh and on the eastern slopes of Western ghats. Teak, bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry. Rainfall 70 - 100 cms. Rainier parts of peninsular plateau and plains of Bihar and Uttar pradesh. Teak, sal, peepal, neem.

Wild life

5% and 8% of the world's amphibians. One horned rhinoceros - Assam, and West Bengal. Indian bison, nilgai, chousingha, gazel, different types of deer. 1200 species of birds - 13% of the world's total. Hot-wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala - Elephants. Birds. Wild ass and camels - Arid regions of Ranna of Kutchh. Only country in the world that has both tiger and lion.. Yak, shaggy horned wild ox, the Tibetan antelope, bharal, wild sheep, the kiang - Ladakh. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials - coastal areas, rivers and lakes. Peacocks. peasants. ducks. parakeets. Cranes. pigeons. Gir forest - lions. Tigers- MadhyaPradesh, Sunderbans (WB), Himalayan region. Leopards.